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The thrust under a market development approach is to expand the markets of the current business. This can be done by gaining a larger share of the current market, expanding into new geographic areas, or attracting new market segments. The basic product or service or to add a closely related product or service that can be sold through the current marketing channels.


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Strategies often capitalize on the favourable reputation of the company or related products. Horizontal integration occurs when an organization adds one or more businesses that product similar products or services and that are operating at the same stage in the product — marketing chain. Almost all horizontal integration is accomplished by buying another organisation in the same business. Reasons for merger. Forward integration moves the organisation into distributing its own products or services. Backward integration moves an organization into supplying some or all of the products or services used in producing its present products or services.

Through Acquisition and Merger, all the previously discussed growth strategies can be implemented either through internal growth or through acquisition, mergers or joint ventures.

Acquisition occurs when one company purchases the assets of another and absorbs them into its own operations. A merge occurs when two or more companies combine into one company. Almost all horizontal integration is achieved through acquisitions or mergers. Growth through vertical integration can be obtained by internal means or by acquisition or merger. The best method is entirely dependent on the situation. Growth through concentric diversification is similar to growth through vertical integration. Reasons for Acquisition and Mergers. Organizations seek acquisitions and mergers for many.

In many situations the owner of a business may sell it and make substantial savings both in income taxes and in estate and inheritance taxes. Guidelines for successfully implementing Acquisition and Mergers.

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The following 10 guidelines are beneficial in successfully implementing acquisition and mergers. The first four guidelines are critical and apply to any and all acquisitions and mergers. This results in synergy. Avoid clumsy overtures, thoughtless actions, and carelessly voiced sentiments. Maintain, and if possible improve, the status of the newly acquired management team. Joint Ventures. A joint venture occurs when two or more organizations pool their resources for a given project or a business product.

There are a number of reason why a joint venture may be attractive to the respective participants:. Most products and services eventually reach a point where future growth appears doubtful or not cost- effective. This may be because of new competition, changes in consumer preferences, or some other similar factor. A harvesting strategy should be considered under. Defensive strategies sometimes refereed to as retrenchment strategies, are used when a company wants or needs to reduce its operation. Most often, defensive strategies are used to reverse a negative trend or to overcome a crisis or problem situation.

Consequently, defensive strategies usually are chosen as a short — term solution or because no better alternative exists. Specific reasons for using defensive strategies include:. These problems can stem from the fact that all or only certain parts of the organization are going poorly. This can be caused by such factors as new competitors entering the market, new products, or changes in government regulations.

Turnaround strategies usually try to reduce operating costs. Divestment is a frequently used strategy when either harvesting or turnaround strategies are not successful.

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And so my proposed definition captures only competitive strategy , that is, the ways in which an organization competes, since competition for revenue, and hence profits, takes place ultimately at the product market level. What, then, is corporate strategy? The most widespread view is that improving the competitive strategies of the operating units is the essence of corporate strategy. The corporate office should be focused on, for example, the identification and capture of synergies between operating units.

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There remains considerable debate about how best to do this. But the underlying assumption — that corporate strategy supplements competitive strategy — goes unchallenged, begging the question whether the corporate office can make any other kind of contribution. This assumption blinds us to the other half of the value equation: uncertainty. But as those familiar with financial theory and practice will know, there can be no returns without risk. Indeed, in a very real sense, accepting risk is the price of those returns, and the hope of more of the latter can only be purchased at the price of more of the former.

And so we have the opportunity to see corporate strategy not as merely a supplement to competitive strategy but also as the overlooked complement. And so a definition of corporate strategy consists of two parts: i capturing inter-divisional synergies — which is the extent of current thinking; and ii how the organization identifies and manages strategic uncertainty. It is this under-development of this second part that I hope to begin to redress.

Many leaders justly resist placing too much faith in organizational design. However, the org chart matters, because it defines how large, complex tasks are divided into manageable chunks, thereby making cooperative effort possible. Organizational structure permits the achievement of these competing, but complementary, goals.

In the realm of strategy-making, however, little attention has been paid to how this same principle should be applied. In any corporation with multiple business units — that is, in any diversified company — the unquestioned dogma is that operating division managers must have the full measure of decision-making freedom, given that they are to be held accountable for their results.

General managers with full decision-making responsibility for a specific operating division — that is, a unit with a competitive strategy — must perforce decide what that strategy should be. Highly differentiated strategies, either low cost or product leadership, offer the promise of high returns, but only because they run higher strategic risk. Staking a defensible claim to a unique competitive position demands bold commitments over long periods of time to assets and capabilities that few others feel will be valuable in the future.

In other words, greatness requires that companies make a significant, and largely irreversible, strategic bet. And like all bets, even when the odds are with you, you can end up losing nearly everything. The more relevant perspective is when Sony had to make its choices.

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For example, the company could have licensed its designs widely, dumbing-down its proprietary technology in the interests of acquiring greater market share faster. In other words, Sony chose a bigger slice of a smaller pie, concluding this would be more valuable than a smaller slice of a larger pie. Operating divisions, forced to chose and implement a competitive strategy, face a dilemma: do they pursue high-risk, but potentially high-return strategies, or do they sacrifice any meaningful chance at greatness in exchange for reduced risk?

Empirically, most businesses opt for the security of me-too, derivative strategies over the higher-risk, but potentially higher-return strategies defined by more highly-differentiated positions. In other words, complete divisional autonomy relegates firms either to accepting strategic risk or avoiding it. What is missing is a meaningful way actively to manage it.

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Managing a complex task essentially means identifying the appropriate dimension of differentiation and integration. Most organizations think of this differentiation in terms of geographic regions, functions, processes, etc. These concepts are so familiar as to be almost banal to anyone steeped in organizational life. What is less common, and hence less intuitive, is that to manage strategic uncertainty effectively we must similarly differentiate roles based on the strategic uncertainty decision-makers face and integrate them by way of the strategic commitments to be made.

I call this organizational design principle Requisite Uncertainty. And unlike most organizational design principles, which operate essentially horizontally, Requisite Uncertainty speaks directly to the roles and responsibilities delegated to each level of the vertical hierarchy.


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Jaques determined that hierarchies function best when each level is separated from the others by the time horizon associated with the decisions made at that level. So, for example, the marketing manager is responsible for getting a new flavor of toothpaste into the market. He decides what the marketing mix will be, the investment in co-op advertising, which channels to focus on, and so on. Her task is different: to decide what the competitive strategy of this division will be. This requires making a commitment, at the most generic level, to a low-cost or differentiated strategy.

corporate strategy deals with Corporate strategy deals with
corporate strategy deals with Corporate strategy deals with
corporate strategy deals with Corporate strategy deals with
corporate strategy deals with Corporate strategy deals with
corporate strategy deals with Corporate strategy deals with
corporate strategy deals with Corporate strategy deals with

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